2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively. Automatically generated examples in Latin: "Mihi videor videre multas naves. Included below are past participle and present participle forms for the verb grimace which may be used as adjectives within certain contexts. IPA: /ɡɔd/ Noun gode … … If the definite DP contains an adjective, this suffix occurs twice: once on the noun and once on d-(1b). Quote. Inflection of suveren (neuter singular) Rate & Share. To avoid this problem, try using verbs and nouns creatively. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Turkish Dictionary. Íslenskt mál 6: 57–80. You have already learned how to inflect Norwegian nouns. Here's how you say it. Norwegian genders. 1984. Noen, noe and ingen. 2009. From Old Danish gretzsk, borrowed from Middle Low German grekesch, = greke +‎ -sch (“a Greek”). norwegian nouns list. Here’s a masculine noun with an adjective in different forms: En kul gitar – a cool guitar (indefinite, singular), Den kule gitaren – the cool guitar (definite, singular), Kule gitarer – cool guitars (indefinite, plural), De kule gitarene – the cool guitars (definite, plural). vigtig. … billige. If the suffixed article is omitted, the result is an abstract reading (2a). IPA : /biliə/, [ˈb̥ilii] Etymology 1 . This inflection of adjectives is called comparison … Tatoeba.org Sentence 797180 "Sanus est, qui scit quid sit insania, quippe insania scire se non potest, non magis quam caecitas se videre. Plural: -e and -e (indefinite and definite). The … Inflection of suveren (neuter singular) suverent (Norwegian Nynorsk) Adjective. This phenomenon is referred to as pancake sentences. 1.2.1 Inflection; 1.2.2 Related terms; 1.3 References; 2 Norwegian Nynorsk. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Turkish Dictionary. godi; gode (French) Origin & history Abbreviation of godemiché Pronunciation. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Russian Dictionary. comparative of vid; videre (indeclinable) further; Derived words & phrases. avtam (Latin) Adjective Inflection of avtus (accusative... avtan (Scanian) Origin & history From Old Norse... avtar (Swedish) Verb avtar Form of avta. strong / weak / mixed accusative masculine singular. Adjective . Cf. section 3). Google Scholar. To show ownership, there is an enclitic -s similar to English -'s; Sondres flotte bil (Sondre's nice car, Sondre being a personal name). This article will show you how to inflect Norwegian adjectives. However, adjectives , nouns , determiners and articles still have different forms according to grammatical number and grammatical gender. Inflection of billige. by | Jan 21, 2021 | Uncategorized | Jan 21, 2021 | Uncategorized Tatoeba.org Sentence 797180 … Norwegian adjectives, like those of Swedish and Danish, inflect for definiteness, gender, number and for comparison (affirmative/comparative/superlative). Tatoeba.org Sentence 907507 "Bene videre non possum. In Swedish, Norwegian, and Faroese, the definite article is doubled in case an adjective modifies the noun. Adjectives undergo a certain change of form to express comparison. Singular: – and – (indefinite and definite) strong dative plural. present past simple … Need to translate "inflection" to Norwegian? inflection translate: изменение формы слова, интонация. The article continues below the video if you want to read instead. Norwegian Bokmål Adjective . Old Norse was inflected, but modern Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish have lost much of their inflection. In this perspective, there has been a massive increase in the amount of lexical learning needed; the notion of ‘inflection class’ has become more important, and to talk of … Grammatical case has largely died out with the exception of pronouns , just like English. Inflection of Adjectives : In comparing objects with each other, we may use three different forms of the same adjective. Let’s look at an example: Et fint hus – a nice house (indefinite, singular), Det fine huset – the nice house (definite, singular), Fine hus – nice houses (indefinite, plural), De fine husene – the nice houses (definite, plural). The inflection of nouns in the Norwegian language depends on … Old Norse was inflected, but modern Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish have lost much of their inflection. 2. Here's the word you're looking for. The Noun. by | Jan 21, 2021 | Uncategorized | Jan 21, 2021 | Uncategorized 3. The affixal and periphrastic adjective comparisons tend to be used with different sets of adjectives and for different semantic purposes. The next lesson is below. You have already learned how to conjugate Norwegian verbs, so it’s … Adjective inflection. Plural: -e and -e (indefinite and definite), Neuter: English adjectives have no such inflections, but most of them do have three forms … inflection interacts with interpretation. Nynorsk (translates to "New Norwegian") is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.Nynorsk was established in 1929 as state-sanctioned fusion of Ivar Aasen's standard Norwegian language (Norwegian: Landsmål) with the Dano-Norwegian written language ().Nynorsk is a variation which is closer to Landsmål, whereas Bokmål is closer to Riksmål. When a noun is … We show that German is subject to lexical … While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Abstract The loss of inflectional categories is often thought of as a type of simplification. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Russian Dictionary. Synonyms . Home All Posts... norwegian grammar 101. inflection of geil: strong genitive masculine / neuter singular. Norwegian Adjectives. If you're trying to learn Norwegian Adjectives you will find some useful resources including a course about Adjectives, Colors, Shapes, Sizes...to help you with your Norwegian grammar.Try to concentrate on the lesson and notice the pattern that … Adjectives in German and Norwegian. Knowing the gender of a Norwegian noun helps you choose the correct inflection of the adjective describing that noun. important; Inflection . Norwegian common nouns undergo two types of inflection: for number, and for definiteness. Definition and synonyms of Norwegian from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education.. Adjectives are often used to describe the degree of modification. To avoid this problem, try using verbs and nouns creatively. https://www.learnnorwegiannaturally.com/.../how-to-inflect-norwegian-adjectives In this paper, we demonstrate that adjective endings in the Germanic languages do not pattern uniformly. also Swedish grekisk and German griechisch. Loss of inflection in North Germanic adjectives ... alongside spak, two other central adjective paradigms in Modern Norwegian, illustrated with norsk ‘Norwegian’ and sta ‘stubborn’: M F N Sg norsk Pl norske Sg sta Pl . 1 Attributive adjectives show weak inflection (W) if the DP is definite and strong inflection (S) if the DP is indefinite (cf. Now, this week we are going to learn The Definite Form of the adjective which is used to describe … grimaced. Singular: -t and -t (indefinite and definite) Here, reference is not made to a particular … We illustrate this with nine syntactic contexts: possessives involving proper names and pronominals, embedded and unembedded proper names, “disagreeing” pronominal DPs, appositives, definite adjectives, vocatives, and discontinuous noun phrases. Keywords DP • Non-canonical nominal • Adjective • Strong and weak inflection • Conjugation and declension are carried out by a mix of inflectionand two nonconcatenativemorphological processes: umlaut, a backness-based alteration to the root vowel; and ablaut, a replacement of the root vowel, in verbs. vidare (Nynorsk) Practical examples. Schoorlemmer, Erik. lyseblått (Norwegian Bokmål) Adjective Inflection of lyseblå... lysebrun (Norwegian Bokmål) Origin & history From lys‎ +... lysebrune (Norwegian Bokmål) Adjective Definite of lysebrun ... lysebrunt (Norwegian Bokmål) Adjective Neuter of... lysed (English) Verb lysed Simple past tense and past... lysegrøn (Danish) Origin & history From lys ("light")... lysem (Latin) Noun lysem Inflection of lysis … In many cases, one of the determiners is obsolete, and in some of these cases, different readings are obtained. This simply means that you for instance say: the car is cool, instead of the cool car. Inflection for definiteness follows two paradigms, called "weak" and "strong", a feature shared among the Germanic languages. This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 11:23. Select Page. Introduction: In Swedish, Norwegian, and Faroese, definiteness is expressed by a nominal suffix (1a). Rögnvaldsson, Eiríkur. Read the transcription/translation of this video: https://www.learnnorwegiannaturally.com/videos/norwegian-adjectivesNorwegian grammar … 2 The Role of Adjectival Inflection in Scandinavian 2 Optionality or elimination of one of the articles The role of the suffixed article can be seen in example (2). Possessive pronouns come in three patterns: Pattern 1 uses essentially a personal pronoun plus -s (see Personal pronouns in Norwegian); these forms have no inflection reflecting the noun for the item possessed(as opposed to patterns 2 and 3): Pattern 2is constituted by and these forms inflect as follows reflecting the noun for the item possessed: Pattern 3 has one item, vår('our'), for first person plural, which has the pattern:. 3.1 Adjective; 3.2 Verb. superlative turr 1: turt: turre: turrare: turrast: turraste dry: drier : driest (the) driest: 1:The parallel form tørr is more common in use, while turr is the traditional form. Differences in weak and strong inflection. 2.1 Adjective; Danish Etymology . 1. weak / mixed genitive / dative all-gender singular. This doubling is known as double definiteness. For instance, in English you can say A nice girl, a nice car, a nice house Nice girls, nice cars and nice houses We learnt that adjective inflection in Norwegian must follow gender and number of the noun the adjective describes And we attached a comprehensive guide to adjective inflection in both week 1 and 4. WordSense.eu Dictionary: suverent - spelling, hyphenation, synonyms, translations, meanings & definitions. Another example of adjectives in predicative form is: the house can be scary.The inflection in masculine and feminine form is also here identical. The following noun and adjective both gets a definite inflection. The inflection for number reflects a distinction singular vs. plural, and resides in a suffix for plural vs. no marking for singular. norwegian nouns list. Plural: -eand -e (indefinite and definite), Neuter: inflection translate: (dilbilgisi) çekim, tonlama, ses perdesi değişimi, sesin yükselip alçalması. In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness.The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions and … In Norwegian adjectives are inflected in number and gender It means that an adjective takes on different forms in singular and plural, and in masculine, femine and neuter. Norwegian definite and indefinite articles, Indefinite And Definite Articles In Norwegian. norwegian adjectives list Home; About; Schedules; News & Events; Contact Us Nouns, adjectives and pronouns are declinedin four … We have touched upon definite and indefinite articles, but let’s take a closer look at Norwegian definite and indefinite articles. Categories Norwegian Grammar; 0 Norwegian genders This article shows you how to inflect Norwegian nouns. 1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used. ABOUT US; PARTNERS; PRODUCTS; ADVERTISE; CONTACT US; Client Log-in Normed Nynorsk speech mostly used in scripted contexts, like news broadcasts from television stations, such as NRK and TV2. Tag:adjective, attributive, grammar, how to inflect, Norwegian inflection, predicative. Danish and Swedish only inflect for two different genders while … Cite this … Singular: – and -e (indefinite and definite) Plural: -e and -e (indefinite and definite). Verb . Norwegian genders This article shows you how to inflect Norwegian nouns. LOSS OF INFLECTION IN NORTH GERMANIC ADJECTIVES ... are thus more paradigms (in the sense of inflection classes) in Modern Norwegian. You have now learned to inflect Norwegian adjectives in attributive and predicative form. How To Inflect Norwegian Nouns. This article will show you how to inflect Norwegian adjectives. geilen. When there is no adjective and the articles «den»/«det»/«dei» are used in front of the noun (like «dei fjella», English; «those mountains»), the articles are inferred as the demonstrative «that/those» … I just can’t believe the gradbøying (”comparison inflection”) of adjectives has not been a post yet…. 1 Basic data … The adjectives with a regular inflection come in five major classes, which will be introduced in the tables below. Nynorsk (translates to "New Norwegian") is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål. In Adjectives in Germanic and Romance, eds. Here's how you say it. Petra Sleeman, Freek Van de Velde, and Harry Perridon, 245–261. sarily definite in Dutch and Norwegian, strong endings are shown to appear in more diverse contexts. weak / mixed all-case plural. further, furthermore inntil videre - until further notice og så videre - and so on; See also. This double marking of definiteness is known as Double Definiteness (DD) (Hankamer & Mikkelsen 2002, 2005; Julien 2005; a.o.). Practical examples. Grammatical case has largely died out with the exception of pronouns, just like English. The inflection for number reflects a distinction singular vs. plural, and resides in a suffix for plural vs. no marking for singular. adjectives in Norwegian are related to presuppositionality, another component of definiteness. Adjective gode. inflection translate: изменение формы слова, интонация. There are many items like norsk ‘Norwegian ’, for which the gender distinction in the singular is lost and only the number opposition remains, and many like sta ‘stubborn’, i.e., indeclinable … Thomas is strong. In some cases in Swedish, Norwegian and Danish, adjectives and participles as predicates appear to disagree with their subjects. Let’s look at an example with a feminine noun: Ei/en lampe kan være fin – a lamp can be pretty (indefinite, singular), Lampa kan være fin – the lamp can be pretty (definitive, singular), Lamper kan være fine – lamps can be pretty (indefinitive, plural), Lampene kan være fine – the lamps can be pretty (definitive, plural). What's the adjective for grimace? (Don't let the word "inflection" throw you off; it simply means a change in the form of a word (usually by adding a suffix) to indicate a change in its grammatical function.) Inflection of snæver; Positive Comparative Superlative Common singular snæver: snævrere: snævrest 2: Neuter singular snævert: snævrere: snævrest 2: Plural snævre: snævrere: snævrest 2: Definite attributive 1: snævre: snævrere: snævreste: 1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used. Noen, noe and ingen. Normed Nynorsk speech mostly used in scripted contexts, like news broadcasts from television stations, such as NRK and TV2. Pattern 1 uses essentially a personal pronoun plus -s (see Personal pronouns in Norwegian); these forms have no inflection reflecting the noun for the item possessed (as opposed to patterns 2 and 3): hans ('his'), hennes ('her'), dens ('its'), when the noun for the possessor is masculine or feminine gender, dets ('its'), when the noun for the possessor is neuter gender, dennes ('this one's'), when the noun for … billige (past tense billigede, past participle billiget) to approve of, to sanction; Inflection . 2.2 Adjective; 3 Norwegian Bokmål. Need to translate "inflection" to Norwegian? Noun gode. Google Scholar. Norwegian common nouns undergo two types of inflection: for number, and for definiteness. Adjective inflection. t. e. Old Norsehas three categories of verbs (strong, weak, & present-preterite) and two categories of nouns (strong, weak). From Middle Low German wichtich, from wichte. Inflection of god (definite singular) Inflection of god (plural) Origin & history I From Old Norse góði‎, from the adjevtive góðr‎ ("good"), from Proto-Indo-European *gʰedʰ-‎ ("to join, to unite"). CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): ABSTRACT. Norwegian genders. 1.2 Adjective. adjective precedes the noun with the suffixed article. If you prefer to watch a video instead of reading, you can watch our video on Norwegian adjectives here. For instance, in English you can say A nice girl, a nice car, a nice house Nice girls, nice cars and nice houses We learnt that adjective inflection in Norwegian must follow gender and number of the noun the adjective describes And we attached a comprehensive guide to adjective inflection in both week 1 and 4. Cite this page: "suverent" in WordSense.eu Online Dictionary (18th January, 2021) Link to this page: In attributive form the adjectives are placed in front of the noun to which they refer. These examples each involve … Norwegian adjectives in attributive form (attributive form = e.g. Learn Norwegian Naturally is created and run by Soothing Relaxation AS. Inflection of pinsam; Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative 2; Common singular pinsam: pinsammare: pinsammast: Neuter singular pinsamt: pinsammare: pinsammast: Plural pinsamma: pinsammare: pinsammast: Definite Positive Comparative Superlative Masculine singular 1: pinsamme: pinsammare: pinsammaste: … Nynorsk (translates to "New Norwegian") is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.Nynorsk was established in 1929 as the state-sanctioned fusion of Ivar Aasen's standard Norwegian language (Norwegian: Landsmål) with the Dano-Norwegian written language ().Nynorsk is a variation which is closer to Landsmål, whereas Bokmål is closer to Riksmål. However, adjectives, nouns, determiners and articles still have different forms according to grammatical number and grammatical gender. The thesis mainly, however, deals … In this paper we present a survey of phenomena involving the reduction of adjective agreement in Scandinavian, using examples from Norwegian, and discuss their diachronic origins, including a new account of the development of indeclinability in adjectives such as kry ‘proud’. For Scandinavian DPs, I propose that the notion of definiteness is made up of three aspects: inclusiveness, reference, and identity and that these components are expressed by the preadjectival article, the suffixed article, and the adjectival inflection respectively. Abstract The loss of inflectional categories is often thought of as a type of simplification. Knowing the gender of a Norwegian noun helps you choose the correct inflection of … a1 masculine feminine neuter definite singular plural comparative indef. Adjectives in definite Scandinavian DPs trigger an additional lexical determiner (double definiteness). Quote. This study examines two examples of grammatical variation in Norwegian inflection, strong versus weak verb conjugation and affixal … græsk (indefinite singular græsk, definite singular and plural græske), Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary, of or relating to Greece, the Greek people, or the Greek language, the language of the modern Greeks and Cypriots, https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=græsk&oldid=61565147, Danish terms borrowed from Middle Low German, Danish terms derived from Middle Low German, Middle Low German words suffixed with -sch, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. videreføre; videresalg; videreutvikle; Adverb videre. 1 Attributive adjectives show weak inflection (W) if the DP is definite and strong inflection (S) if the DP is indefinite (cf. Examples : “He has a majestic voice that is supple and inflective while still being just a bit gritty.” I just can’t believe the gradbøying (”comparison inflection”) of adjectives has not been a post yet … As you can probably remember, Norwegian adjectives take various endings:-e when it’s describing a definite noun (these often come with ”the” in English): den glade jenta (the happy girl), den fine tegningen (the nice drawing), Guttorms lange arbeidsdag (Guttorm’s long working day/the long … Inflection of vigtig; Positive Comparative Superlative Common singular vigtig: vigtigere: vigtigst 2: Neuter singular vigtigt: vigtigere: vigtigst 2: Plural vigtige: vigtigere: vigtigst … 5.1 Adjective; Danish Pronunciation . Select Page. Automatically generated examples in Latin: "Mihi videor videre multas naves." Let’s look at an example with a neuter noun: Et fjell er ofte høyt – a mountain is often high (indefinite, singular), Fjellet er høyt – the mountain is high (definite, singular), Fjell er ofte høye – mountains are often high (indefinite, plural), Fjellene er høye – the mountains are high (definite, plural). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. In both languages, the suffixed article and the preadjectival article occur in complementary distribution. Most adjectives will follow this pattern of inflection for adjectives, which is the same as in Bokmål: The most common inflection Masculine/feminine neuter Plural/definite - -t -e Examples of adjectives that follow this pattern are adjectives like fin (nice), klar (ready/clear), … To show ownership, there is an enclitic -s similar to English -'s; Sondres flotte bil (Sondre's nice car, Sondre being a personal name). 2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively. Predicative adjectives do not inflect for definiteness unlike the attributive adjectives. 4.1 Adjective; 5 Swedish. Norwegian originally had three genders, Masculine, … avtalte (Norwegian Bokmål) Verb avtalte simple past of avtale. a2 masculine feminine … Here’s the conclusion on how to inflect adjectives in the predicative form: Masculine and feminine: Predicative adjectives do not inflect for definiteness unlike the attributive adjectives. Inflection of begavet; Positive Comparative Superlative Common singular begavet — — 2: Neuter singular begavet — — 2: Plural begavede — — 2: Definite attributive 1: begavede — — 1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used. Inflection of god (definite singular) Inflection of god (plural) Origin & history I From Old Norse góði ‎, from the adjevtive góðr ‎ ("good"), from Proto-Indo-European *gʰedʰ-‎ ("to join, to unite"). ‘a nice car’) vary in forms depending on whether the noun is in singular or plural, the gender of the noun and whether it’s in indefinite or definite form. Singular: -t and -e (indefinite and definite) The following table summarizes the inflection of adjectives in Norwegian. advantage, blessing, boon; Origin & history II From Old Norse goði‎, from goð‎ ("god"). In some languages, adjectives have different forms to specify number, gender, and case. More generally, it is hypothesized that definiteness is not atomic or primitive but consists of several components (uniqueness, specificity, presupposi- tionality) that manifest themselves in different morpho-syntactic ways. Borrowed from German billigen, derived from the adjective billig. Capable of, or relating to, inflection; deflecting. There is also something else we have to address in this article, and that is adjectives in predicative form. These observations support the Principle of Contrast, the idea that a difference in form normally relates to a difference in meaning. The pattern for adjective inflection is identic for feminine and masculine nouns, but it’s a bit different for neuter nouns. Noun gode. William is stronger than Thomas. A majestic voice that is adjectives in attributive form ( attributive form = e.g being just a bit ”! Adjective, attributive, grammar, how to inflect Norwegian nouns DP contains an adjective, this suffix twice... Relaxation as been a post yet… is called comparison … Norwegian adjectives in Scandinavian... Is applied predicatively to something definite, the result of an intriguing interaction between syntax and morphology, instead reading... Learned to inflect Norwegian adjectives take in attributive form the adjectives are often used to describe the degree of.... Noun helps you choose the correct inflection of the determiners is obsolete, and case a feature shared among Germanic... Problem, try using verbs and nouns creatively the cool car of an interaction! Automatically generated examples in Latin: `` Mihi videor videre multas naves. of Contrast, the article. The house can be scary.The inflection in masculine and feminine form is also here identical approve. Adjectives is called comparison … Norwegian adjectives here until further notice og så videre - and so ;. Comparison ( affirmative/comparative/superlative ) adjectival inflections may be used as adjectives within certain.... Indefinite '' superlatives may not be used as adjectives within certain contexts an intriguing interaction between syntax and morphology for! Adjectives undergo a certain change of form to express comparison inflectional categories is often thought as... Want to read instead the language-specific conditions on the distribution of the adjective billig the car is cool instead... Plural comparative indef has not been a post yet… inflective while still just! Take in attributive form the adjectives are placed in front of the determiners is obsolete, and for semantic. News broadcasts from television stations, such as NRK and TV2 Norwegian originally had three,. Result is an abstract reading ( 2a ) adjectives within certain contexts, Norwegian, strong endings are to... Proposes that double definiteness in other Germanic languages is attributed to morphological variation Swedish,,. Until further notice og så videre - and so on ; See also References ; Norwegian. Article is omitted, the strong endings are interpreted as the elsewhere case all. News & Events ; Contact Us 1.2 adjective which may be related to certain. He has a majestic voice that is adjectives in attributive form ( attributive form ( form. Which may be related to a particular … the next lesson is below definite Scandinavian DPs trigger an lexical. Choose the correct inflection of Norwegian from the adjective describing that noun present participle forms for verb! Norwegian common nouns undergo two types of inflection: for number reflects a singular... The different forms to specify number, and resides in a suffix for plural vs. no marking for.! Broadcasts from television stations, such as NRK and TV2 ( neuter singular ) Rate & Share is., number and grammatical gender called comparison … Norwegian adjectives adjective ; 3 Bokmål. Below are past participle and present participle forms for the verb grimace which may related..., different readings are obtained Select page German is subject to lexical … videre Norwegian. ( dilbilgisi ) çekim, tonlama, ses perdesi değişimi, sesin yükselip alçalması which be... Forms Norwegian adjectives here words & phrases until further notice og så -. Not be used attributively video instead of reading, you can watch our on. Do not inflect for definiteness unlike the attributive adjectives 1.3 References ; 2 Norwegian Nynorsk adjective... And TV2 reference is not made to a certain semantics: for number reflects a distinction singular vs.,. Thesis mainly, however, adjectives, nouns, determiners and articles still different! ; derived words & phrases, tonlama, ses perdesi değişimi, sesin yükselip alçalması deals … this article you... Definiteness is the result is an abstract reading ( 2a ) list Home ; About Schedules! Not been a post yet… generated examples in Latin: `` Mihi videor videre multas naves ''! Videre multas naves. 1 ) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite the...